Some hormones act by triggering the release of calcium from the ER. These hormones can regulate gene expression. By which mechanism is calcium most likely to affect the transcription of genes? Activation of calmodulin-regulated protein kinases that phosphorylate nuclear transcription factors. Binding of calcium to mRNA, which stabilizes the RNA against the action of RNA-degrading enzymes. Methylation of DNA in the promoters and enhancers of genes by a calcium-dependent enzyme. Binding of calcium to transcription factors, which in turn bind to promoters and enhancers of genes. Binding of calcium to negatively charged phosphate groups in the DNA double helix. QUESTION 146 Thyroxin-binding globulin (TBG) is the major binding protein for T3 and T4 in the blood, that are the ligands for Thyroid Hormone Receptor, a member of Nuclear Receptors Superfamily of proteins. Approximately 80% of the hormones are bound to this protein under ordinary conditions. Assume that a patient is homozygous for a frameshift mutation in the gene for TBG, and that no functional TBG is formed at all. What would be the consequences? Normal levels of total hormone, signs of hyperthyroidism (too much thyroid hormone action) Reduced levels of total hormone, signs of hypothyroidism (too little thyroid hormone action) Normal levels of total hormone, no clinical abnormality Reduced levels of total hormone, no clinical abnormality Elevated levels of total hormone, no clinical abnormality

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