Salts and sugars work to preserve foods by creating a A) lower pH. B) depletion of nutrients. C) hypotonic environment. D) hypertonic environment. E) lower osmotic pressure. 19) Most fungi grow best at pH A) 1. B) 5. C17. DS. D) 9. E) 14. 20) A culture medium consisting of agar, peptone, and beef heart is a A) differential medium. B) complex medium. C) reducing medium D) chemically defined medium. E) selective medium. 21) Which of the following is the best definition of generation time? A) the length of time needed for a cell to divide B) the minimum rate of doubling C) the length of time needed for lag phase D) the time needed for nuclear division E) the duration of log phase 22) Which enzyme catalyzes the reaction: 2H202-2H20+02? A) oxidase B) superoxide dismutase peroxidase D) catalase 23) Patients with indwelling catheters are susceptible to infections because A) infections can be transmitted from other people. B) injected solutions are contaminated. C) biofilms develop on catheters. D) their immune systems are weakened. E) bacteria cause infections. 24) Most bacteria reproduce by A) binary fission B) budding C) aerial hyphae. D) mitosis. E) fragmentation. 25) Which of the following is the best method to sterilize heat-labile solutions? A) freezing B) membrane filtration C) dry heat D) autoclave E) pasteurization

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