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Histone proteins a. Act as enzymes c. Are the basis for nucleosomes in chloroplasts e. e and d 2) At a certain stage of development of a particular plant cell, a sudden increase of one protein, Protein A, occurs. This increase could not be due directly to a. Decreased degradation of hnRNA for Protein A b. Increased transcription of the Protein A gene c. Increased activation of an inactive form of Protein A d. Increased amino acid synthesis e. Refolding of the Protein A gene 3) To clone DNA, one way is to isolate mRNA and use it to produce cDNA using a. DNA polymerase d. RNA polymerase 4) Often acting as dimers, activate genes. a. hnRNAs 5) Restriction endonucleases: a. Cut DNA at random sites on the DNA molecule. b. Cut only viral DNA but do so very efficiently. c. Repair DNA molecules that have been broken. e. Cut DNA molecules at palindromic sites that vary with the particular endonuclease. 6) Glyphosphate (trade name Roundup ) is an effective herbicide that works by: a. Causing stomata to close permanently. c. Blocking an enzyme that occurs only in plants. d. Clogging the xylem. e. Clogging the phloem. 7) hn RNA includes: a. mRNA before processing that has both exons and introns. c. Pieces of removed exons. b. Protect nuclear DNA and act as the structural basis of nucleosomes d. Are the main regulator of transcription b. Reverse transcriptase e. DNA replicase are proteins that bind to promoter or enhancer regions on DNA to c. DNA ligase b. Translation factors c. tRNAs d. mRNAs e. Transcription factors d. Remove introns from mRNA. b. Causing the cuticle to break down. b. Pieces of removed introns. d. tRNA bound to DNA during transcription. e. Individual, unbound ribonucleotides 8) DNA is protected from degradation by: a. Histone proteins holding them in an inert form. b. Not participating directly in protein synthesis. c. Storage within the nuclear envelope. 9) Which is a correct match between a molecule and its place of synthesis in a cell? a. mRNA – cytoplasm d. Ribosomal proteins -nucleus _10) If a DNA segment has the base sequence TGACTCAAGCTT, then the anticodons of the tRNA molecules that bind to the MRNA transcribed from that sequence would be a. ACU, GAG, UUC, GAA d. UG, AC, UC, AA, GC, UU 11) Which of the following mutations is the most likely to be harmful to a plant? a. A point mutation in a rRNA gene c. A deletion in spacer DNA e. A point mutation in the region of DNA coding for a start codon 12) Mutations usually occur frequently in a plant and may be caused by a. DNA copying mistakes b. Chemicals in the environment c. Insect pests d. a and b e. a, b and e 13) If plants with red flowers are selfed, plants of the F1 generation produce flowers that are red or white in a ratio of 3 red: 1 white. With respect to flower color, the parent plants must be a. Homozygous with red dominant to white c. Heterozygous with red dominant to white e. There is not enough information given to tell 14) Tallness (T) is dominant to dwarfness (t) and broad leaves (B) are dominant to narrow leaves (b). To determine the genotype of a tall, broad-leaved plant, it would be best to cross it with a plant that is a. Tall with broad leaves d. Dwarf with narrow leaves d. All of the above are correct. b. RNA polymerase II – cytoplasm c. Ribosomal subunits- cytoplasm e. tRNA – cytoplasm b. TGA, CTC, AAG, CTT e. UGAC, UCAA, GCUU c. UGA, CUC, AAG, CUU b. An insertion in an intron of an enzyme gene d. An inversion in a tRNA gene b. Homozygous with white dominant to red d. Heterozygous with white dominant to red b. Tall with narrow leaves e. Any of the above c. Dwarf with broad leaves

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