Which sentence best defines signal transduction in a biochemical context?
a. Alteration of cell functions in response to the environment
b. Generation of a chemical change in response to information
c. Induction of cell death upon nutrient starvation
d. Responses to stimuli

  1. Which statement is correct?
    a. G protein-coupled receptors produce second messengers indirectly while receptor enzymes catalyse second messenger generation
    b. Second messengers stimulate the activity of G protein-coupled receptors.
    c. Receptor enzymes produce second messengers through activation of G protein-coupled receptors.
    d. Receptor enzymes do not catalyse second messenger generation
  2. What second messenger is bound by calmodulin?
    a. cAMP
    b. cGMP
    c. Calcium
    d. Diacylglycerol
  3. cAMP is degraded by:
    a. Adenylate cyclase
    b. ATP
    c. Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase
    d. Protein kinase C
  4. G-protein coupled receptors contain:
    a. Tyrosine kinase activity
    b. Adenylate cyclase activity
    c. No cell surface receptor domain
    d. 7 transmembrane helices
  5. How can G-protein coupled receptor signalling be turned off?
    a. Hydrolysis of GTP bound to Gs
    b. Activation of adenylate cyclase
    c. Formation of cAMP
    d. Hydrolysis of GTP bound to Gi
  6. Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate is converted into inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate and diacylglycerol by:
    a. Calmodulin
    b. Protein kinase C
    c. Calcium
    d. Phospholipase C

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