Land plants are believed to have evolved (a) mosses (b) ferns (c) chrophytes (d) fungi & Sperm find their way to the archegonium (a) by swimming (b) due to a chemical gradient diffusing from the archegonium (c) as a result of sucrose being released during the breakdown of the neck canal cells of the archegonium (d) by all of the above 2. In the bryophytes, the sporophyte is (a) the dominant generation (b) dependent on the gametophyte generation (c) able to produce all of its own nutritional requirements (d) both a and 3. Liverworts and masses utilize which of the following pigments for photosynthesis (a) chlorophylls a and b (b) carotenes (c) xanthophylls (d) all of the above 9. A protonema (a) is part of the sporophyte generation of a moss (b) is the product of spore germination of a mass (c) looks very much like a filamentous brown alga (d) produces the sporophyte when a bud grows from it 10. The suffix-phore is derived from a Greek word meaning (a) branch (b) moss (c) liverwort (d) male 4. Which statement best describes the concept of alteration of generations? (a) One generation of plants is skipped every other year (b) There are two phases, a sporophyte and a gametophyte (c) The parental generation alternates with a juvenile generation (d) Agreen sporophyte phase produces food for a nongreen gametophyte 11. The sporophyte is the dominant and conspicuous generation in (a) the fern allies and ferns (b) gymnosperms (c) flowering plants (d) all of the above 5. Alteration of heteromorphic generations (a) is found only in the bryophytes (b) is common to all land plants (s) is typical of most green algae (d) occurs in the liverworts but not mosses 12. A tracheophyte is a plant that has (a) xylem and phloem (b) a windpipe (c) a trachea (d) the gametophyte as its dominant generation 6. An organ that is hygroscopic (a) is sensitive to changes in moisture (b) is exemplified by the peristomal teeth in the sporophyte of mosses (c) may aid in spore dispersal in mosses (d) is all of the above 13. Psilotum lacks (a) roots (b) a mechanism to take up water and minerals (c) Vascular tissue (d) alternation of generations 7. Gemmae function for (a) sexual reproduction (b) water retention (c) anchorage of a liverwort thallus to the substrate (d) asexual reproduction 14. Spore germination followed by cell divisions results in the production of (a) a sporophyte (b) an antheridium (c) a zygote (d) a gametophyte

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