In both aerobic cellular respiration and oxygenic energy transduction, what provides the energy directly for the chemiosmotic production of ATP? A. osmosis B. NADPH production c. electrochemical gradient D. temperature gradient A. they establish an electrical gradient that is used for electrical work B. they take electrons from the substrate to ensure that it is broken down C. they give electrons to a substrate to create new covalent bonds D. they give electrons to help make ATP 32. Why are electron donors like NADPH essential to anabolic processes?

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