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Why does active transport of molecules across a membrane require ATP? An input of energy is needed because the movement of molecules requires the synthesis of additional membrane. O An input of energy is needed to allow the movement of molecules from an area of low concentration to one of higher concentration O An input of energy is needed to move all molecules across a membrane. O An input of energy is needed to speed up the rate of facilitated diffusion

Belding’s ground squirrels often produce alarm calls that alert other squirrels to the presence of a predator. Describe an experiment that you would conduct (including your treatments and what variables you would measure) to determine if this behaviour is an innate behaviour. (2 marks) b) Use Hamilton’s rule, rB > C, to answer this question. Two first cousins (r = 1/8) do not yet have offspring of their own. They live in a population where the average number of offspring is 2 per individual. If the first were in a dangerous situation, what is the minimum risk of death to the second that would prevent the first from attempting a rescue, assuming individuals behave in a way that maximizes their inclusive fitness? SHOW ALL CALCULATIONS. (2 marks) c) In some birds, one female regularly mates with multiple males, while males only mate with a single fernale. Describe the environmental factors that favor the evolution of this type of mating behaviour (1 mark).

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