1. Fusion inhibitors act as anti-viral agents by preventing fusion between the host cell membrane and the

a. HIV hemagglutinin

b. CCR5 and CXCR4 coreceptors

c. CD4 receptors

d. HIV coat proteins

e. HIV envelope

2. Flu viruses have a single large circular nucleic acid molecule in their genomes.


3. When European colonists introduced smallpox to the Americas from the late 1400’s on-wards, the disease was devastating to native populations mainly due to:

a. an extremely virulent strain of the virus that spread very quickly

b. co-infection with other disease-causing viruses

c. the failure of Europeans to provide adequate medical attention to the natives

d. the native’s lack of immunity

e.poor diets that lacked essential vitamins

4. Nucleoside & nucleotide reverse-transcriptase inhibitors work as anti-HIV agents because they

a. bind to and inhibit reverse transcriptase

b. prevent fusion of HIV with host CD4 cells

c. prevent the production of reverse transcriptase in CD4 cells

d. are structural analogs of normal nucleosides & nucleotides

e. prevent entry of HIV into host CD4 cells

5. During the bacteriophage infection cycle, is possible for a new virus to assemble with a piece of host DNA inside. This can lead to the phenomenon called _____ in which bacterial DNA is horizontally transferred to another bacterium

a. conjugation

b. translation

c. transformation

d. transduction

e. transcription

6. Which of the following prevent uncoating of the influenza virus?

a. rifampin

b. fostemsavir

c. azidothymidine

d. rimantadine

e. Tamiflu

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