1) The Calvin Cycle cannot take place in photosynthetic cells at nighttime. Why is this the case? [Hint: you must describe what happens to the proton gradient in chloroplasts at night].

2) Rubisco is an important Calvin Cycle enzyme that is required for Calvin Cycle reactions to take place. The molecule CA1P is a potent and specific inhibitor of the enzyme Rubisco. In photosynthetic cells where CA1P is present, the Calvin Cycle is blocked, but the light-reactions are also subsequently blocked. Provide an explanation as to why the light-reactions are blocked by CA1P

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