Write a short essay on Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection. Briefly describe the early theories about evolution and geology that influenced Darwin in his formulation of his evolutionart views. 2. Write a short essay on THREE species concept used by biologists today. Include in your answer examples of some of the limitations associated with each concept. 3. Gymnosperms were the first group of seed plants to evolve and were dominant during the carboniferous period. Discuss this group making use of the following headings: a. Characteristics that distinguish Gymnosperms from non-seed plants. b. Notes on extant members of the Gymnosperms. c. Current molecular views on the evolutionary relationship between Gymnosperms and Angiosperms. 4. “Population genetics allows us to observe evolution and the mechanisms of evolution in action.” Discuss this statement, making reference to the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium principle and methods for determining allele frequencies in populations. 5. Describe the various stages and mechanisms involved in speciation. Include in your answer a description of allopatric and sympartic speciation. 6. Discuss what is currently known about the origin of plants using the following headings: A. Closest living relatives to land plants. B. Driving forces behind land plant evolution. C. Characteristics of early land plants that facilitated life on land. 7. Our understanding of animal taxonomy and evolution has changed in light of molecular phylogenetics. Discuss this statement, making reference to the major evolutionary groups now recognised within the Animalia.

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